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||Ðiều Chỉnh||Xếp Bài|
cái này còn chưa rõ nghĩa, nếu bạn nói "ngừng để làm cái gì" hay "ngừng làm cái gì" thì vẫn chưa rõ nghĩa lắm
stop + to inf : ngừng cái này để làm cái kia
Ex: I stopped to take medicine because the doctor want me to do so (Tôi ngưng việc dùng thuốc vì bác sĩ muốn tôi làm thế)
stop + V_ing: ngừng luôn
Ex: He stop smoking (anh ấy ngừng hẳn việc hút thuốc)
hoặc Will you stop singing while I'm talking? (Bạn sẽ ngừng hát khi mà tôi đang nói?)
[Verb Form] V-Ing làm chủ ngữ !
Khi V-ing làm chủ ngữ thì động từ phải chia ở ngôi thứ 3 số ít
Người ta sẽ dùng V-ing khi muốn diễn đạt 1 hành động cụ thể xảy ra nhất thời nhưng khi muốn diễn đạt bản chất của sự vật , sự việc thì phải dùng danh từ .
Ex : Dieting is very popular today
Động từ nguyên thể cũng có thể dùng làm chủ ngữ giả " IT" ở đầu câu .
Ex : To find the book is necessary for him = It is necessary for him to find the book .
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[Verb Form] Những động từ luôn luôn có danh động từ ( gerund ) theo sau :
Đây là những V mà theo sau nó luôn là Gerund :
Admit : thừa nhận
Allow : cho phép
Appreciate : đánh giá cao
Avoid : tránh
Can’t help : không thể nhịn
Can’t stand : không thể chịu đựng được
Can’t resist : không thể cưỡng lại
Escape : trốn thoát
Mind : phiền , ngại
Miss : lỡ , lỡ dịp
Practice : luyện tập
Put off : trì hoãn
Remember : nhớ lại
Rencent : bực bội , phật ý
Consider : cân nhắc
Delay : trì hoãn
Deny : chối
Dislike : không thích
Enjoy : thích
Finish : hoàn tất
Suggesst : đề nghị
Risk : liều lĩnh
Stop : ngừng
Imagine : tưởng tượng
Ex : He will never consider leaving this place
Few people enjoy wearing safe belts when they drive
--- The end ---
Có thiếu từ nào nữa không ta ?
[Verb Form] THE GERUND
The Gerund is a vern ending in “ING”, that is partly a verb and partly a noun.
It is called a verbal – noun.
The Gerund is indistinguishable in form from the present part, but wheress the participle is a verbal abjective, the gerund is a verbal – noun.
B/ Forms of the Gerund:
NOTE: In old English, the Present part. Is often ended in “onde”
V.g: writonde, and the gerund in “ing”
V.g: writung, but in pressent – day English the Present part. And the gerund are both ended in “ING”. So confusion sometimes takes place. Care therefore, should be taken in using this.
C/ Uses of the Gerund:
The gerund is a double part of speech – as a kind of noun and as a part of verb.
1/ As a kind of noun, the gerund has most of the characteristics of a noun. Thus, it can be:
a) As the subject of a verb.
Ex: _ Working in these conditions is a pleasure.
_ Talking in class disturbs the classmates.
_ Writing short stories requires great talent.
_ Driving in the city is getting more and more difficult.
_ Singing is a pleasant pastime.
b) As the object of a verb:
_ He enjoyed sleeping in the open air.
_ I dislike driving in such crowded streets.
_ I dislike being driven on the village road.
_ Have you finished writing you book?
NOTE: A complex sentence can be converted into a simple sentence by abridging a noun clause into a gerundial phrase object.
Ex: _ I do not doubt that you are able to do it.
= I do not doubt you being able to do it
(= I do not doubt your ability to do it)
c) As the object of a preposition (= prepositional object)
Ex: _ We thought of going to the dairy farm.
_ I object to your cultivating rice behind time.
_ You succeed in solving the problem.
_ We did not speak of having read this book.
_ The rain prevented me from coming.
_ I did not know of her having made this test.
d) As the complement of a verb ( Predicative ):
Ex: _ Our duty is fighting for Independence and Freedom.
_ The only thing that interests him is reading.
_ Our task is building VN into mighty, wealthy country.
_ To keep money that you have found is stealing.
e) As an appositive ( = in apposition to a noun ).
Ex: _ My favorite exercise, playing tennis, is very beneficial to my health.
_ His constant habit, drinking so much wine should be given up.
l) Preceded by a preposition, the gerund is not only the onbject of the preposition, but with the preposition, it is also used to modify anoun which precedes it. It is, hence, attributively used.
Ex: _ I had no idea of you leaving tomorrow.
_ Is there any hope of getting tickets?
_ He has the habit of smoking after dinner.
2/ Following a preposition and with the preposition, the gerund can be used as an abverb to replace an abverb clause.
a) After some prepositions such as: at, in, on, after, before to denote “time”.
Ex: _ On returning home I found that the door was open. ( When I returned home…)
_ After repairing my bicycle I take a rest. ( After I repaired…)
b) After some preposition such as: by, without to denote “manner”
Ex: _ He left without saying anything.
_ He came in without knocking.
_ He passed the test by studying hard.
c) After the preposition “for” to denote “cause or reason or purpose”.
Ex: _ The boy was punished for staying out late.
_ The hall was used for dancing.
2/ As a part of verb, the gerund can have some characteristics of a verb:
a) It can take a direct object ( if it is derived from a transitive verb ).
Ex: _ His hobby is collecting stamps.
_ Meeting you has been a great pleasure.
b) It can be modified by an abverb.
Ex: _ She likes driving fast.
_ Reading poetry well needs a lot of practice.
c) It can express the present or past time and can be in the active or passive voice.
Ex: _ Spelling is more difficult than writing.
_ The boy was ashamed of having been beaten in class by his teacher.
1/ Gerund is an abtract noun: It has the same meaning as an abstract noun or as a noun infinitive.
_ Gerund: Sleeping is necessary to health.
_ Noun – infinitive: to sleep is to health.
_ Abstract – noun: sleep is to health.
2/ Gerund with an object: since a gerund is part of some verb, it can take an object after it, which may be of any of the six kinds as follows:
_ Direct (with transitive verb) : he is clever at teaching French.
_ Indirect ( with trans verb) : He is clever at teaching his song French
_ Retained ( with trans V. passive): He is pleased at [U]being taught French
_ Coqnate (with intrans V.) : He is proud of having fought a good fight.
_ Reflextive ( with trans. V): He is in the habit of looking at herself in the mirror.
_ Abverbial (with intrans. V): He is not fond of coming home now.
3/ When a verbal – noun (V+ing) is preceded by the definite article “THE” and followed by the preposition “OF”, it is more a noun (pure noun) than a gerund (noun equivalent). It is a single part of speech, not a double part.
Ex: _ I am engaged in the careful reading of a book.
_ I am engaged in carefully reading a book.
4/ The gerund can be noun modifier:
Ex: a walking – strick, a swimming – pool, a knitting – needle.
A reading – room, a dancing – teacher.
Note: the diffirence in meaning between the partiticiple as a modifier and the gerund as a modifier.
Points of distinction between the gerund and the participle are:
1/ The participle, which is partly an abjective , can be expended into an abjective clause.
2/ Roth the present part. And the noun it qualifies a strong stress ( The present part. Expresses more the action than the state).
Ex: a dancing bear / a sleeping child.
Boilding water / the working people.
_ In the gerund construction only the gerund takes stress. Note, too, the hyphen with the gerund. ( The gerund expresses more the state than the action ).
Ex: a dining – room / a boiling – kettle.
A writing – table / a walking – stick.
5/ The gerund is modified by a possessive abjactive or by the possessive form of nouns that can take this form.
Ex: _ It’s no use (no good) your telling me not to worry.
_ He was chosen because of his being fully qualified engineer.
+ This is, perhaps, particularly the case when the gerund is the subject of the sentence.
Ex: _ Your being right doesn’t necessaryly mean my being wrong.
_ I am sure Tony’s sitting up so late is bad for his health.
+ And it is almost always the case after the verbs: delay, deny, postpone.
Ex: _ Don’t delay your sending in of the application form.
_ He doesn’t deny his breaking of the agreement.
This construction, however, is a literary one rather than a conversational one. In colloquial speech it is fairly common to hear a personal pronoun instead of the possessive adjective:
Ex: _ He was chosen because of him being…
_ She was annoyed at you saying…
+ There are cases not only in colloquial but in literary English when the possessive form would never be used:
Ex: _ I don’t like stranger interfering in my affairs.
_ I’m surprised at someone so rich having diffiulty in paying what he owes you.
_ He laughed at my brother and me liking candies.
Put it could be used in such a sentence as: “I cannot understand their being forbidden to go to the meeting.”
+ In short, some following cases don’t require the possessive form before the gerund.
a) After many nouns denoting “person”
Ex: _ I object do Dr.Namon and Mr.Danish going out.
_ I thought a noun followed and mother being alone at home.
b) After a noun followed by an attributive abjective.
Ex: Did you ever heard of a man of sense rejecting such an offer?
c) After an animate object ( a noun denoting “things”).
Ex: _ She said something about her watch being slow.
_ He was displeased at the novel not having been translated.
+ In old English, sometimes the letter “a” (abbreviation of “on”) placed before a gerund in a prepositiontal sense.
_ This set hime (= on) thinking.
6/ Verbs followed by the gerund:
It’s now always case to decide when the gerund should be used after a verb and when the infinitive, but his is the general usage:
a) The following verbs take a gerund after them:
Ex: The baby kept crying all night.
+ “Keep + gerund” gives the meaning “a lot of times”
Ex: I kept on singing (= I continue to sing as I’m a singer)
Ex: I couldn’t avoid meeting him.
“Mind”, with the meaning “object to” is generally used in interrogative and negative sentences.
Ex: Do you mind answering my question?
I don’t mind working overtime.
It can occasionally be used in affirmative sentences when it is in answer to a question “Do you mind…?”
Ex: Do you mind my smoking?
Yes, I mind very much.
b) The gerund is also used after nearly all “phrasal verbs”
Ex: _ You must go on working.
_ He wants to give up smoking.
c) It is used, too, afer the phrases:
_ It’s no good
Ex: It’s no good keeping that book.
_ It’s no use
Ex: It’s no use hiding it.
_ There is (was)
Ex: There was talking in the next room.
_ There is no
Ex: There is no knowing that may happen.
_ There is much
_ There is little.
--> There was much (little) debating on the subject.
_ It is
_ That is
--> It’s (that’s) more practisiing you need.
_ To be worth: This book is worth reading.
_ To be busy: He is busy writing a letter.
d) The gerund is used after:
Capable of, fond of, sick of, tired of, near, cannot bear, cannot help, can’t stand.
Ex: They are capable of perfoming this play.
Note: “Able” means the same as “capable” in many instances, but the grammar is very different, while “able” is followed by the infinitive, “capable” is followed by of + gerund.
Ex: _ These students are not yet able to handle such difficult problems.
_ Thse students are not yet capable of handling such…
e) After some verbs followed by “TO”:
NOTE: The “TO” following such verbs as mentioned above are not the sigh of the infinitive, but the preposition. So, the gerund, if used, must follow them.
Ex: I am accustomed to drinking tea.
In this case, a noun can be logically put after it.
Ex: I am accustomed to noise.
7/ The following verbs may be followed by an infinitive or a gerund with little or no change in meaning:
To begin, continue, cease, hate, intend, like, love, neglect, omit, prefer, propose, start.
Ex: _ He begain talking (= to talk)
_ He like swimming. (= to swim) in the lake.
8/ The following verbs may be followed by an infinitive or a gerund with quite a change in meaning:
To stop, remember, forget, go on, try.
Ex: _ He stopped eating (means that he discontinued eating)
_ He stopped to eat (means that he ceased doing something else in order to eat).
+ With “remember”: _ the infinitive is used for a future action, and means “not forget”
Ex: Please remember to bring you book tomorrow.
_ The gerund is used for a past event and means “call to mind”
Ex: I remember hearing Pedro play the piano very beautifully.
+ With “forget”: _ The infinitive is used with the meaning “fail to remember”.
Ex: I’m afraid he will forget to write to me.
With the gerund, it means “lose the memory of”
Ex: I shall never forget seeing the Swiss Alps for the first time.
+ “To try”: _ with the infinitive has the meaning “make an attempt”
Ex: You must try to be more careful.
With the gerund means “make an experiment”
Ex: Have you ever tried cooking meat in wine instead of water?
+ “To go on” + gerund means “continue to do something”
Ex: They go on studying English.
+ To go on + to – infinitive means “continue to do the same action” but not to keep on the same subject.
Ex: They go on to talk about other matters (= They continue to talk together, but not about the same subject as they have done before)
9/ “ “To prefer” + gerund ” gives a general sense.
Ex: He always prefers staying at home (means “staying at home” in his preference)
_ “To prefer + to infinitive” denotes a special case in which a preference is chosen)
Ex: He preferred to stay at home (rather) than go with us.
(means “the choice of staying home” is superior to “going with us”)
10/ The following verbs can be followed by a gerund with the meaning equivalent to a passive infinitve:
_ You work needs correcting (= your work needs to be corrected)
_ These seeds require looking after carefully (= These seeds require to be looked after carefully)
_ He deserves sending abroad (= He deserves to be sent abroad)
11/ “By + gerund” is used as an adverbial phrase:
Ex: _ He began by explaining new words
_ I found his addres by looking in the telephone book.
_ He always answers questions by shaking his head.
_ He sometimes replies by giving a one – word answer.
_ He pleased them by not coming late.
12/ The perfect gerund/ the gerund passive:
The perfect gerund is used to denote an action which takes place before an action expressed by the predicate verb. But in this case the simple gerund is often preferred.
Ex: He was accused of having entered the house illegally.
= He was accused of entering the house ittegally.
_ After having drunk the wine…
(= After drinking the wine…)
+ The gerund passive is riquire depending on the meaning of a sentence.
Ex: Being satisfied with that he said made me forget all my troubles.
o0o THE END o0o
[Verb Form] Verbs followed by -ing forms
VERBS FOLLOWED BY –ING FORM
104 từ thông dụng và cơ bản đi với -ing
10.Cannot Bear(=Cannot Tolerate)
46.Cannot Help(=Cannot Stop)
66.Notice * #
67.Observe * #
72.Propose(=Suggest) * #
_Verbs with # : can also take THAT-Clause( có thể đi với mệnh đề THAT)
_Verbs with * : can take either the infinitive or –ing form , according to the meaning( có thể đi với động từ nguyên mẫu hoặc dạng “Verb+ing” , tùy thuộc vào nghĩa của câu)
_Underline verbs : can also be followed by an infinitive without any change of meaning(có thể đi với động từ nguyên mẫu mà nghĩa của câu không bị thay đổi)
Nguồn: Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary
Tronh trường hợp trên: My hobby is swimming thì my hobby la` S, is là động từ to be, và swimming là danh từ môn bơi lội
Ex: I am running.
They are smiling.
She is crying.
Cách chia động từ cho các thì tiếp diễn khác cũng tương tự, ta chỉ thay động từ TO BE bằng dạng tương ứng.
Còn trong câu ví dụ của bạn, swimming là danh động từ, đóng vai trò chủ ngữ.
xin cho hoi
"Sometimes very young children have trouble separating fact from fiction and may believe that dragons actually exist" có nghĩa là gì?
và nhất là từ trouble có phải lun đi cùng vs Ving như trong câu trên?
Còn về grammar thì chịu nhưng tớ nghĩ trouble không phải luôn đi với ving.
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